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被動態翻譯怎樣說人話?被動態英譯中套路總結

It was finished. 這件事已經完成了。

The ceremony was ended. 儀式已經結束了。

The glass was broken. 玻璃碎了。

The difficulties have been overcome, the work has been finished and the problem solved. 困難克服了,工作完成了,問題也解決了。

“讓”、“給”、“叫”、“挨”、“受”、“遭”、“蒙”、“為”、“經”、“由”、“遇害”也是天生自帶被動屬性的字眼,在表示發生不好的事情的時候,妥妥地用上:

The village was washed away by the flood. 村莊讓洪水沖走了。

This city was devastated by the earthquake. 這座城市在地震中遭到重創。

On the day before he was killed 在他遇害前一天

She is always intoxicated with sweet words.她總是為花言巧語所迷惑。

I was recommended by a professor. 我是由一位教授推薦過來的。

善用“把”字。比如:

The tree was blown down by the wind.風把樹刮倒了。

These questions should not be confused.不要把這些問題混在一起。

如果動作發出者并不是重要信息,那么可以嘗試用無主句。中文常用無主句,比如:

The mechanical energy can be changed back into electrical energy by a generator. 利用發電機,可以將(把)機械能再變回電能。

Air resistance must be given careful consideration when the aircraft is to be manufactured. 要制造飛機,就必須考慮空氣阻力問題。

善用這兩種句式:“是……的”和“……的是……”,比如:

The speed of wind is expressed in meters by second.風速是用秒米表示的。

I was recommended by a professor. 推薦我的是一位教授。

The first clock with weights and wheels is said to have been invented about the year 1000A.D. 據說,第一座有鐘擺和齒輪的鐘大約是在公元1000年左右發明的。

用“予以……,加以……”,比如:

But compensation shall be made for malicious damage caused to another person by a trademarkregistrant. 但是,因商標注冊人的惡意給他人造成損失的,應當予以賠償。

This problem must be dealt with at the appropriate time. 這一問題必須適時予以處理。

用“……過來、……出來”,比如:

I was recommended by a professor. 我是由一位教授推薦過來的。

Another four hundred and fifty years passed before the first watch was made in Germany.又過了450年,第一塊表才在德國制造出來。

轉換為因果關系??紤]到被動態里涉及動作的發出者和承受者,有時可理解為某種前因后果的關系。因此,可以試著將被動態轉換為“因為所以”的表達,比如:

The ceremony was abbreviated by rain.因為下雨,所以儀式提前結束了。

這個思路其實還蠻常見的,比如be driven by, be caused by, be pushed by, be catalyzed by很多時候都是處理成因果關系的所,比如:

The world’s winds are driven in large part by the temperature difference between the poles and the tropics. 世界上的風很大程度上是因兩級和熱帶地區的溫差而形成的。

換主語

Better my life should be ended by their hate, than that hated life should be prolonged to live without your love.我寧可死在他們的仇恨中,也不愿意延長這可恨的生命而得不到你的愛。

或根據句意增補“大家”、“有人”、“人們”等比較寬泛的主語,比如:

Voices were heard calling for help.

有人聽見呼救的聲音。

He has often ,not always justly, been accused of indecisiveness.

人們常指責他優柔寡斷,雖然這種指責并不總是公正的。

it is widely known that...眾所周知

當然,上述套路尚不足以覆蓋所有被動語態的翻譯,很多時候也看我們的中文儲備,對雙語的敏感,需要跳出英文框架,“得意忘形”,比如:

Clocks of that kind could not be carried about from place to place. 這樣的鐘不便攜帶。

Last night, I was covered up with two quilts. 昨晚我蓋了兩條被子。

The ancient civilization ofAtlantis was rediscovered. 亞特蘭蒂斯古文明重見天日。

He has been pursued, day by day , and year by year, by a most phenomenal and astonishing luckiness. 日復一日,年復一年,他始終吉星高照,令人驚異不已。

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